I would say, this integration is possible but does have its challenges.
Step 1: Since you mentioned your robot client/server/vdi is running 24/7 all you have to do is write a bat script with following (Quotes if your paths contain spaces between characters):
"yourpath\UiRobot.exe" execute --file "yourpath\yourProcess.xaml"
(We have used this method before and it allowed us to run a BluePrism process and trigger a UiPath attended robot! Fun times trying to migrate from BP to UiPath.)
Step 2: Trigger to check changes in your Sharepoint List/column
Step 3: From Flow/Microsoft automate, it seems to be possible to run the above bat script on your robot client/server/vdi via a data management gateway using powershell. (We have not tried this yet, but it does look promising.)
Challenge 1: Logging into the robot client/server/vdi to run the powershell command (Step 3). Since BluePrism has a wonderful login agent, it was easy for us to log into the robot machine and run the powershell script. I am not sure how the data management gateway solves this.
Challenge 2: Ensuring your process has all interactions (type-into, clicks) in simulate type. If your process already has this covered, then I dont think you will have to worry about Challenge 1. Robots do open applications even from lock screen and can complete processes without logging in provided the applications/process allow simulate actions.