That's extremely odd... There are commercial licenses and community forums are not the place to discuss them (obviously). I'd recommend either resending the email or using the chat on uipath.com to clear it up.
Directing here for other questions is fine I think, but that one was a blunder.
For your other questions:
Compiling to exe is no longer supported as far as I know since early v8 (2 major versions back, there are some outdated informations on the page), but that's actually not an issue since you can run them without starting Studio anyway.
For helper robots (front office, those that run simultaneously to a person using the computer) you can start any deployed one from the tray icon. It's possible to create also a shortcut to run it, but since functionality is the same, I'd say that it's easier to keep it in the software itself.
For backoffice (unattended - will log in, do the process, log out) they're started from Orchestrator (backend monitoring/control center) and/or task scheduler and/or API call (depends on setup, needs etc.).
Deploying is done either locally on the machine, or to the Orchestrator.