The checks and balances are developed workflows to my understanding, but what tools does UI path offer to centrally govern without training end users and building workflows like e.g., AA Control Room?

UiPath has the governance feature in Studio and StudioX to enforce development best practice, where you can create a check list of what can or cannot be create in the workflow and show warning and exception to the users.
You can find out more from here: https://docs.uipath.com/studio/docs/governance