If I have a sequence that is within a workflow files and it is named, and it is part of a bigger program, if an error is thrown will it log the correct message of where the error is. If I have the whole program in a try-catch block?
You will get all the details from the exception object (any inner exceptions too) in the catch block.
You can use the Debug feature of the Studio (hotkey F7) to see what is being logged and where, or if you need more detail about logging levels try this link https://studio.uipath.com/v2018.3/docs/logging-levels#section-logging-levels-in-uipath
All the best!